The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an intergovernmental body of the United Nations which provides scientific information on human-induced climate change, its natural, political, and economic impacts & risks and possible mitigation options. It was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and was later endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly. The Secretariat of IPCC is situated in Geneva, Switzerland.
The IPCC was developed from an international scientific body, the “Advisory Group on Greenhouse Gases” set up in 1985 by the International Council of Scientific Unions, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) to provide recommendations based on current research. This small group of scientists lacked the resources to cover the increasingly complex interdisciplinary nature of climate science.
To make unbiased research on climate change, the U.S. government was keen in instrumenting an independent body and helps in forming the IPCC as an autonomous intergovernmental body in which scientists took part both as experts on the science and as official representatives of their governments, to produce reports which had the firm backing of all the leading scientists worldwide and reach consensus from every one of the participating governments. The IPCC does not conduct its own original research. However, it produces comprehensive assessments, reports on special topics, and methodologies.
The IPCC published its 1st Assessment Report (AR1) in 1990 and its supplementary report in 1992. Subsequently it published 4 more reports. Currently, it is working on its 6th Assessment Report (AR6), which will be completed in 2022. Before IPCC was established, the scientific community was split on whether Climate Change impact was real or overstated. IPCC gave clarity and proved to the world that Climate Change impacts are real.